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4. 植民地からどのように連行されたかHow were they transported from colonized areas?
Regarding the transporting from the colonized areas(Korea and Taiwan), I want to mention one thing. Notice from the Police Bureau, the Department of the Interior, Feb. 23rd, 1939. (Please refer to p.26) People who insist there were no enforcement publicized newspaper advertisement on the Washington Post, titled “The Fact”, June 14th, 2007. In the ad, they said this notice ordered the recruiters to observe the international law. What was the real fact?
They don’t realize that the important point is that this order is limited to the mainland Japan. In order to transfer the women to become comfort women from Japan to China, they have to be over 21 year-old and their career is prostitute only. This is a fact. But, this notice to limit their career to be prostitute did not apply to Korea and Taiwan. This is important. People who said there is no enforcement overlook this point.
Also in the same advertisement, they quoted another newspaper article from “Toho Nippo” (Aug. 31st, 1939), that the Busan Police inspected bad record trader and said that the Governor-general's office was in charge of the situation. Do you think this is real? During the war, there were many newspaper articles to say Korean Governor-general's office was trying to control the trafficking and criminals against the Criminal Law 226. Governor-general's office indeed tried to control them, for this is illegal.
They did so when the private traders were doing so without the request or order from the Army nor Governor-general’s office. If you read the Toho Nippo’s article, contrary to the advertisement’s allegation, there is no reference of “comfort women”. They simply said “women and girl’s army”. But there is the Army (or the Governor-general’s office) behind, and if the selected traders gathered women and transferred them, for example, to the brothels in China, whether they could really in control or not is doubtful. They believed women are in acute need, therefore they would look over some illegality in the process of recruiting them.
The case quoted in the Washington Post is the case of trader without permission and order from the Army. It shows that the Governor-general’s office acknowledge these two differently, one is purely private entity and another one have the Army behind. They treated these two differently.
5. 戦地・占領地からどのように連行されたかHow were they transported from the front and from the occupied areas?
Lastly, I will talk about how the women from the battlefield or occupied areas, China, South East Asia and Pacific, were transferred.
In Korea and Taiwan, there were many cases of trafficking and kidnapping. There could be some cases of abduction, but majority was these two.
On the other hand, in China, South East Asia and Pacific, the Army requested the local powerful person to gather women, beside the trafficking and kidnapping. Disguising the form of request, with the absolute power the Army had, nobody could refuse, I would think. So, the locals had to force themselves to meet the requests.
I can give an example for such a case from an Army surgeon’s diary.
When I tried to proceed to the internal inspection of vagina, she got more bashful and refused to take off her trousers. Together with the interpreter and the public-order control chairman roared to frighten her to take off. While I made her lay in dorsal position and inspected, she scratched her hands vigorously. I looked up and found her crying. She did not stop crying even after she left the room, I was told.
Next young woman was the same and it almost made me cry, too. It must have been their first experience and must be such a shame for them. When you think of the purpose, this is indeed a humiliation for them, I can imagine. They must have been persuaded over their tears by the village chief and the public-order control chairman that this is necessary for the village safety.
Some of them might have applied for the money they were told that they would be able to get, but when it comes to war, it is miserable. I do not do this with joy, either. I am not for this kind of job and the sense of humiliating human rights do not leave my mind. (an Army surgeon’s diary, Aug. 11th, 1940, published in “Dokuzan Ji”, Hitori Mizobe ed., in house publication, 1983)
This case shows the resistance of women to their first experience of inspection, who were pushed by the local powerful persons to sacrifice themselves. And this is not the only one, I think.
Another case is abduction by the Army and the Police, which PM Abe refers to. You cannot deny the fact that there were many cases of abduction with force and violence in the battlefields and the occupied areas. Again, Ms. Nishino will report on the evidences given at trials for B, C grade war criminals and testimonies given at the court cases starting in 1990’s for “comfort women” and other testimonies from ex-“comfort women”. These evidences stand against any denial.
With all these, I would like to summarize the characteristics of the issue of the Japanese Army’s “comfort women”. One is that this is the obvious wartime sexual violence.
Second is that there were many cases of non-Japanese women being made to “comfort women”, this is clearly discrimination against races and ethnicity.
However, there were numerous Japanese women, too, made to “comfort women”. In many of these cases, they are women who had already sold for trafficking to prostitution, then turned to be “comfort women”. This means that they are from poor class, I should point out that it was the Japanese Government and the Japanese Army’s thinking it is OK to make them “comfort women” since they are from poor class. This shows clear class discrimination.
In conclusion, I say the Japanese Army’s “comfort women” issue is the triple discrimination of violence against women, of race and of class, which together constitute severe human right abuse against the dignity of women.
2. 強制とはなにか、「暴力的に連行する」ことだけが問題かWhat composes forced recruitment? Is the use of violence when recruiting is the only issue here?
1)Criminal Law 226
We have to deliberate on what constitute “enforcement”. PM Abe stated that military personal or police men themselves directly go into houses and abducted women is the only case of “enforcement” and other cases do not apply to this category. However, this is very peculiar and limited definition of enforcement which allows the Japanese Army and the Japanese Government to be left clear out of responsibility in most cases.
More than anything else, against their own will is already enforcement. That is, the women at the brothel are forced to have sexual intercourses with the Japanese soldiers against their will, that is the issue here.
Illegality does not only lie with the use of violence or threat, regarding how women are transferred. It is clear, but to make sure, let us check on the Criminal Law 226 of the time. It says like this.
With the purpose of transferring personal outside of the Empire, by kidnapping or by abduction would constitute crime of 2 years or more of imprisonment.
With the purpose of transferring personal outside of the Empire, trafficking personal and taking the women outside of the Empire, would constitute crime of 2 years or more of imprisonment.
Here four types of crime are mentioned. One is abduction of people outside of the country, taking people with violence or threat.
Second is kidnapping people. Kidnapping is different from abduction and it is deceiving with honeyed words and put people under control.
Third is trafficking. Before the war, trafficking within the country did not constitute crime within Japan. Trafficking became illegal in Japan as late as in 2005, to our surprise. It was US who pointed out that trafficking in Japan is an usual deed and the criminal law was amended, just so recently. But, trafficking beyond the country’s border was crime, even before this amendment.
Forth is the transferring people outside of the country. Transferring personal, who are being kidnapped or abducted is criminal.
This law applied also to the colonized areas such as Taiwan and Korea, and the charges are the same in these areas, too.
Let us compare what the Japanese Government think of abduction by the North Korea. The following is the case of Minoru Tanaka and the National Police Agency explains why this case is abduction。
1)Victim: Minoru Tanaka, age 28 (at the time), address; Higashinada-ku, Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture, job; worked at a restaurant
2)Outlines of the fact: The victim was working at the restaurant, which owner is a Korean resident in Japan, taken abroad with honeyed terms and then sent to North Korea.
3)Reasoning: 1. The Police acknowledges all the cases behind which the national will by the North Korea could be guessed, and taken to the North Korea against their will.
2. (omission) Testimonies from plural witnesses are acquired additionally which suggest that the victim was sent to the North Korea with honeyed terms.
This case suggest that Mr. Minoru Tanaka was first taken abroad in June, 1978 by the owner of the restaurant and then sent to North Korea. And the reason why they judged this case to be abduction is that there is the national will of the North Korea and it was against his will. Through the acquirement of testimonies of several witnesses, it was strongly suggested that he was lured with honeyed terms and sent to North Korea.
This is the case against Criminal Law 226, Kidnapping with the purpose of transferring outside the country, therefore abduction. If this is the case, then it should be judged so, in the cases of “comfort women” who are lured with honeyed terms and deceiving, for example that they can earn big money if they work at “comfort place”, the life there is easy, and such.
(3) Characteristics of the traders
Traders of “comfort” are most likely running prostituting business or human trafficking organization originally, and was chosen by the Army for that purpose. Another cases are the veterans from the Army became “comfort” business managers. These private businesses are not purely private, but they were selected by the Army, or in some cases by the Police or the Governor-general’s office. Therefore, they were given certain benefits. Also, they were issued certificates. The certificate said, after 1942, “Affiliate of the Army”, which showed that they were selected by the Army, given some benefits, and treated with the same way the Army were treated.
(4) Shanghai Navy’s designated Brothel Incident, Great Court’s Judge, 1937
The incident which I name it “Shanghai Navy’s designated Brothel Incident” is the case which was judged to be guilty of kidnapping for the purpose of taking abroad and traded abroad, was concluded at the Great Court in 1937, right before the Japan China War. I would suppose Mr. Hayashi will explain in more details, but it is clear the Army and the Police themselves raided a house and taken women with force is not the only point that we should consider.
(5) Evidence to show the enforcement
It is often said that there is no evidence which show the enforcement, but actually there are.
I will list a few. One is the official document of the US Army. This is already a very famous one and it is translated and included in “Juugun Ianfu Shiryou Shu”, (Otsuki Shoten), which I have edited. It is Japanese Prisoner
of War Interrogation Report No. 49., in Oct., 1944, by UNITED STATES
OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION Psychological Warfare Team . This report is based on the information obtained from the interrogation of twenty Korean "comfort girls" and two Japanese civilians, they were a couple, it seems, captured around the tenth of August, 1944 in the mopping up operations after the fall of City of Myitkyin, Burma. In the report, there is a section titled “Recruiting”, which I quoted. The report described how these women were recruited, as follows.
Early in May of 1942 Japanese agents arrived in Korea for the purpose of enlisting Korean girls for "comfort service" in newly conquered Japanese territories in Southeast Asia. The nature of this "service" was not specified but it was assumed to be work connected with visiting the wounded in hospitals, rolling bandages, and generally making the soldiers happy. The inducement used by these agents was plenty of money, an opportunity to pay off the family debts, easy work, and the prospect of a new life in a new land, Singapore. On the basis of these false representations many girls enlisted for overseas duty and were rewarded with an advance of a few hundred yen.
What does this suggest? Women were not informed of the nature of brothel accurately. They were induced or deceived and taken abroad. This, by the criminal law’s definition, exactly fits with the kidnapping people for the purpose of transporting them to outside of country.
It also says that many women received a few hundred yen, and later in the same report, it says that they were restrained for “comfort service” for certain period. If this is true, it constitutes human trafficking. In summary, this case is guilty with human trafficking, kidnapping people for the purpose of transporting them to outside of the country and transporting outside of the country. How could anyone dare to say this is not enforcement?
Other materials which show enforcement are evidences given at the Tokyo Military Court and its judgment, and the judgment and corroborative data given at the B,C Grade’s War Criminals Court held is Netherland. About these, Mr. Hayashi will report in more details. (War Responsibility Report, No. 56, July 2007)
Third is the records kept by officers and soldiers, or reminiscences written after the war. (Yoshimi, “juugun Ianfu”, Iwanami Shinsho) These are very important, too.
Those who say there were no enforcement often say that “There is no Japanese official paper which admit enforcement found,” but if there is no Japanese official paper, do you think that you can say that there is no enforcement? This is very difficult to prove. It is rather very likely that there are no official paper, since the order itself will constitute illegality. You can not order such illegal act officially in any paper, therefore you cannot find them.
Forth is testimonies from the victimized women. In a real court case, where there is limitation to submit written evidence, they gather data through presentation and inquiry to restructure facts. In the court, there is always Cross-examination given. Testimonies which had been screened through this cross-examination become reliable evidence.
From the view point of historical study, this cross-examination is the critique of the historical materials. Written materials, anything written at that time, or after the war, as well as testimony is also a good materials. If not using all these, we cannot write modern history, especially. It is our common sense.
The point here is, whether the evidence we base our judgment is in written form or not, we do critique them. Those which went through the critique could bear witness for the historical facts. We use these concrete evidence to decide the historical facts and restructure the historical reality of the time.
In that sense, debating on the value of the written or oral evidence is nonsense. Evidence which screened through academic critique and cross-examination are equal in their value as evidence for us to use. Further more, the severe reality of the victims at that time can only be clarified through the victims’ voices. We should listen sincerely to them to know what it was like. I cannot think of any better way to know the reality of the time.
There are many testimonies, precious and clear, I can give, but Ms. Nishino will further introduce them later.
3. 慰安所の状況はどのようなものだったかWhat was the situation like at brothels?
Third point is to clarify the situation at the comfort brothel. How the process was like for the women to be transferred to the brothel, if there is enforced labor or service to the Japanese military personal against their will, that will constitute enforced labor. In the criminal law’s term, “control in real” will be the point of debate. And it is very easy to prove that there were enforcement at brothels to the women against their will.
(1)They were not liberated even when they were brought by kidnapping and trafficking.
The Japanese Army did not release and send the women back to Korea or Taiwan, even when they come to know that they were taken by kidnapping or trafficking. Let us see an evidence here. Please look at this one.
This is from a book written by ex-officer, Ken-ichi Nagasawa, “Kankou Iansho”(Tosho Shuppansha, 1983). Ken-ichi Nagasawa, Army surgeon captain, describes his experience of first venereal disease inspection for a young woman who had been brought from Japan. This woman was rejecting the inspection strongly.
“Second floor” man of the Senshou Pension is pulling the arm of a young woman new to me. Young woman drew her hips backwards as much as her body become like a jack knife and was trying to pull herself away from him. When she saw me, she looked very much frightened, like a dog chased into a dead-end, where there is no escape.
I told “Second Floor” to let her go and asked him what’s the matter behind the curtain. He said she had just arrived yesterday afternoon, from mainland Japan. Today, she will have to go through inspection and start servicing from tomorrow, but she refuses to take the inspection, and that was the cause of this hustle, he told me.
I also asked the woman to come in. Red brown hair, black skin, right out of the field, she looked. She spoke in very strong dialect and said that she was to comfort soldiers at a comfort place, and that she had never expected to do anything like this at any place like this. She said she want to go back home and pleaded to let her go and cried. “Second Floor” was totally in a mess. (omission)
The next day, yesterday’s woman came once again with the “Second Floor” and the trader. …. Yesterday after they went back, she was persuaded, got spanked a few on her cheeks, or cried herself out all night, her eyes were swollen so much that her eyes were hid.
Today, she’d already given in, it seemed, and crawled on to the inspection bed. She covered her face with her sleeves and her legs were tightly closed and shivered. (omission)
(The next day) I heard a woman’s cry. Looking out of the window, I could see through the window inside the washing room of the Senshou Palace. Yesterday’s woman was leaning out from the window, vomiting….Cry and vomit, after vomiting again cry like a child….With heavy debt, it is impossible to go back to home. Parents, brothers, relatives and friends, all are away and nobody is here to save her. What she could do is to cry out at her might, I guessed. After a while, another comfort woman came and took her in her arms around the shoulders and went.
“Senshou Palace” is the name of a brothel and “Second Floor” is the manager of the place. The woman crying was brought from Japan, but she is resisting that “I heard that I comfort soldiers at comfort place and did not know that I have to do such service at such place.” She was told that she is to work at a comfort place but was not told that it means sexual service. This case is deceiving. So, it is clearly criminal against the Kidnapping with the purpose of taking outside the country. And she was with heavy debt. Kidnapping and trafficking, double criminal.
If this is the case, the Army in charge of the brothel had to abandon the contract for the illegality of confining her and let her free and send her back home. But, obviously, there is no such recognition. In the end, they force her to take the inspection and put her into the brothel. She could not escape from that however she resisted.
Being taken by trafficking or kidnapping, women were never released and sent back home to mainland Japan, Korea or Taiwan, even after these backgrounds were revealed. If this is the case, women are under the forced labor at the brothel, we should conclude.
(2)“freedom of habitation”, “freedom of going out”, “freedom of refusal” and “Freedom of quitting” were not there.
When we look at the situation of women at the brothel, we should recognize that there is no freedom of habitation. They had to live in the brothel.
And if you look at the regulation for brothels made by the Army, there is no freedom of going out. There are many regulation which said to go outside, you need permission. One example is Iroiro Outreach, Bisaya Quarter, Management Philippines. (please refer to the chart in p.24) This is the regulation for the brothel in Iroiro City, and it states that the outing of comfort women should be strictly managed and can be allowed for going out for walk only in the morning, in a small section with a little park inside. To take a comfort woman out needed permission. It was not free.
Basically, there was no right to refuse the intercourse with the soldiers. They will be beaten up, if they did.
One more thing is, what is merely a formality under the mainland Japan’s public prostitution system, freedom of closing the business was admitted, but in the case of these brothel’s comfort women, there was no freedom of closing the business.
Even before the war, public prostitution system was actually slavery with trafficking and confinement, then the comfort women system could be called slavery as well.
I have to mention one thing about juvenile labor at the brothel. There were many juvenile. Under the international law prohibiting women and children’s trafficking, when you transfer those under 21 years old outside the country for the purpose of prostitution, it is illegal, even with agreement from them. But in reality, at least more than half of them are under 20 is obvious from some materials. Among the 20 Korean comfort women who are rescued in Burma, 12 of them were under 20 when they’d been transferred. This is just one example. That is the majority.
第一章加害責任はどこまで明らかになっているかAssault Responsibility: How much has been proven?
As the first speaker today, I would like to tell you “how much is known today about the assault responsibility of the Japanese “comfort women” issue”. Since there are two more speakers today, my responsibility here is to give you overviews, leaving more specification to the next speakers.
I want to say a few words about the jargons I use. “Military Comfort Women, Juugun Ianfu”, or the Japanese Army’s “comfort women, Nihon-gun Ianfu” are no different. Right wing people dislike “Juugun Ianfu” and simply use “Ianfu”, in their hope, maybe, to deny the association from the word with the army. When you look at the formal papers during the war, they refer to “Military Brothel”, “Military Brothel Comfort Women” or “Comfort Women” for such and such unit. So, it will be OK to use “Military Comfort Women”, but I think the Japanese Army’s “Comfort Women” is a better term to use.
Another point is that since the word “comfort women” itself is an effort to conceal the reality, therefore this term should always be used with quotation marks.
1. 日本軍「慰安婦」制度はなぜつくられたかWhy the Japanese Army's "comfort women" system created?
First, let me point out two things. One is why the Japanese Army’s “Comfort Women” system was created. Second is why the Japanese Army needed such system. Its motivation to build such system, I mean.
No.1 reason is the prevention of rapes. In the occupied area, especially in China, after the battles had been set, there were many cases of rapes by the Japanese Army’s soldiers took place, which is formally admitted by the Chief of Staff for the Japanese Northern China Area Army in his official report. To set up brothels where women will be available for sexual intercourses will prevent such cases, was their easy way of thinking.
However, judging from what has happened in the end, this intention failed, we have to admit. Admitting sexual violence publicly within the army, at the brothel, preventing it outside was difficult, to start out with.
Second reason is the prevention of sex oriented diseases to prevail, which appears in some papers. At the battlefields, after the battle, if soldiers would visit local brothels, where venereal diseases are popular, they will catch them. In order to prevent that, the army’s own brothels are needed. If the army itself controls and supervises the brothels and the women in there, they could prevent the venereal diseases, they thought, although this also failed, as well.
I gave three figures, here. This is the data from a survey by the Japanese Army on the number of newly infected patients within the army, for fear of venereal diseases prevailing within the army. The number was 11,983 in 1942, 12,557 in 1943, 12,587 in 1944, and it shows the increase. Although the number of recruited soldiers was increasing, too, so by percentagewise, we are not sure of the increase, but the absolute number did not decrease.
Of course, when you got sick to some venereal diseases, whether you’d report honestly of the fact is dubious and it is more likely that you’d hide, because it is a shame. This means the actual number being infected would be much greater. Anyway, this shows that the prevention of venereal diseases failed.
Setting up brothels for the prevention of rapes and diseases neither worked, and still the construction of them continued and increased. Why was this? The largest reason is to provide “comfort” to the soldiers at the battlefields.
To the armies at fronts, volume of alcohol was provided almost free hand. By the common sense of before war in male community and culture, what you’d think of “comfort” is sake, Japanese alcohol. And another is woman. So, they simply followed their sense. This is the biggest reason why the number of brothels kept increasing.
One more thing, the forth reason was “Bouchou=prevention of spies”. How this is connected with the brothel is this. If you are to get comfort at the local brothel, you’d get acquainted with local women. It might happen that you’d mention some information. And if there were spies at the brothel, information might be leaked to the enemy. In order to prevent that, you’d prohibit soldiers to pay visit to the local brothels and instead provide alternative. The brothel is controlled and managed by the army completely so that there could be no spies and even the women and the traders are screened and controlled. So that is the mechanism of its development.
So the logical conclusion is that it was not the businessmen who pressured the army for the construction of the brothels, but it was the army and the navy who were in need and positively promoted them and even took initiatives of such constructions.
ここまでわかった! 日本軍「慰安婦」制度 翻訳
The Facts! The Japanese Army’s “Comfort Women” System
On July 30th, 2007, resolution on the Japanese Army’s “Comfort Women” was passed anonymously at the US House of Senate. This resolution asked for clear and straight apology and explanation of the responsibility from the Japanese Government, but ever since this resolution had been tabled at the Committee on the Foreign Affairs of the House, Prime Minister Abe, at that time, and some politicians had alleged that there were no evidence of forced recruitment by the Japanese Army.
PM Abe said that there is no proof of the involvement of the Japanese Army and together with some other politicians put out a newspaper advertisement on Washington Post, as well as some lobbying to prevent the ratification of the resolution. These actions, however, met with a very strong criticism from international society. The criticism was against the lack of sensitivity on human rights, but also against the double standards of the Japanese Government, which once recognized the responsibility of the Japanese Army and showed some “apology and regrets” on this through Kono’s talk, but thrown it over with these actions.
As we have been hearing allegation against the facts about “Comfort women”, insulting them and causing more pain in them, the Center and the Active Museum together have put together our refute on these allegations, straightening the facts in the press briefing and proposed “What constitute ‘apology” regarding the Japanese Army’s “comfort women”” to the Japanese Government, and also held a symposium on Aug. 11th, titled “The Facts! The Japanese Army’s “Comfort Women” System.”
This symposium was held with the hope to share the materials collected and outcomes of research and survey found so far, as well as facts revealed by the testimonies from the survivors who raised their voices. There were three reports presented at the symposium. Yoshiaki Yoshimi, Professor at Chuo University, on “Assault Responsibility: How much has been proven?”, Hiroshi Hayashi, Professor at Kanto Gakuin University, on “Trials: How the "confort women" system being accused?“, Rumiko Nishino, the president of WAM, women’s active museum, on “What have been clarified by the testimonies from the victims”.
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